With the development of time, the human need for electricity continues to increase. Even today, almost all household appliances, machine tools, gadgets, and vehicles use electricity as an energy source.
In physics, electricity is a flow of electrons from atoms in a conductor. Another understanding states that electricity is a force or energy that is created by friction or by physical processes.
It turns out that electricity as we know it is divided into several types, including:
Static electricity is a type of electricity where electrons rest or don’t move in a conductor. Static electricity occurs when two conductors with different charges are rubbed together.
This creates an electrical charge that is contained in the conductor and collects on the surface of the conductor that has previously been rubbed against one another. When the two conductors are brought closer to each other, a mutual attraction arises. However, there is no electron charge transfer to the conductor.
In other words, static electricity arises due to the phenomenon of objects having interconnected electrical currents when there is no electrical power source. These objects can generate protons or electrons without the need to use electrical energy-generating elements.
Note that static electricity can be generated by two objects that have different electrical charges. While this electrical charge is divided into positive charges (protons), negative charges (electrons), and neutral charges (neutrons).
An example of static electricity can be seen from experiments in which a silk scarf was rubbed on a glass surface. As a result, electrons contained in the silk scarf are transferred, which then collect on the surface of the silk scarf.
While the positive charge or protons move and collect on the surface of the glass. And when silk and glass are brought close to each other, there is a mutual attraction between the two objects.
Lightning bolts that occur when it rains are an example of static electricity. When it rains, the clouds begin to form large clouds, creating friction between the clouds.
This friction causes the electrons to move freely until the electrical charge friction occurs. This electrical charge sinks from the clouds to the earth to be neutralized. This is known as lightning.
Dynamic electricity is certainly different from static electricity. Dynamic electricity is a type of electricity in which electrons move. Dynamic electricity is the transfer or movement of electrons from one atom to another atom that is contained in a conductor or conductor.
If the movement of the electron displacement is unidirectional or in a fixed direction, then the current flow is of the direct current (DC) or direct current type. However, if the electron displacement changes direction periodically, then the generated electric current is of alternating current (AC) or alternating current type.
An example of dynamic electricity is toy cars that use batteries as a power source.
Types of electrical flow based on the flow
Direct current (direct current) is current that only flows from one direction, namely from the positive pole to the negative pole. When viewed from an oscilloscope, the direct current is straight in shape, including a smooth current in that it looks like a thread, not rough like a wavy alternating current.
Because of the smooth nature of electricity, most of the DC power is used to power electronic devices such as televisions, radios, computers, cell phones, and motorized DC vehicles. The most popular sources of direct current come from batteries and batteries.
Alternating current (alternating current) is an electrical current that flows back and forth, flows from one pole to the other, then returns to the original pole and continues on and on.
The alternating current flow differs from the direct current flow in that it has no positive or negative pole.
In addition, only alternating current has one frequency, namely the number of electrical alternating stages that occur for 1 second.
When viewed with an oscilloscope, AC power has a waveform like water waves. Therefore, alternating electrical current is called coarse current because of its undulating shape.
Alternating electrical current cannot power electronic devices. It can only be used to power motorized AC motors and the transmission of power distribution from generators to households, consumers, or other industries.
Difference between static electricity and dynamic electricity
- Static electricity flows only through friction and does not flow continuously. In dynamic electricity, there is a transfer or flow of electrons and flows continuously.
- Static electricity flow is very difficult to measure, especially when voltage, resistance, and power are known. The dynamic electricity can be easily measured with an available measuring device. These measuring devices can also be used to read voltage, resistance and power in dynamic electricity.
- Dynamic electricity occurs only in a ladder conductor. The isolator’s function is to protect and prevent users from getting electric shock.